5-15-R is a standardized questionnaire for parents covering development and behavior of children and adolescents in ages 5 to 17 years. Beside this new upgraded version of the parent questionnaire a teacher questionnaire has been developed. New norms for both parent and teacher questionnaire are based on nordic children. More information about the new revised version can be read in the Manual from 2017 (download from the website).

For the 5-15-R thorough information about collection of norms, reliability and validity can be read in

Lambek, R. & Trillingsgaard, A (2015). Elaboration, validation and standardization of the five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in a Danish population sample. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 161–170.

The first version of the 5-15 questionnaire came in 2004. The research group behind the instrument presented norms, psychometric properties and clinical relevance in a special edition of European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3: 3-13:

Kadesjö B, Janols LO, Korkman M, Mickelsson K, Strand G, Trillingsgaard A & Gillberg C. (2004). FTF (Five to Fifteen): The development of a parent questionnaire for the assessment of ADHD and comorbid conditions. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3: 3-13.

Korkman M, Jaakkola M , Ahlroth A, Pesonen AE & Turunen MM. (2004). Screening of developmental disorders in five-year-olds using the Five to Fifteen questionnaire. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3: 31-38.

Trillingsgaard A, Damm D, Sommer S, Jepsen JR, Østergaard O, Frydenberg M & Hove Thomsen P (2004). Developmental profiles on basis of the Five To Fifteen parent questionnaire. Clinical validity and utility of the FTF in a child psychiatric sample. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3: 39-49.

Airaksinen EM, Michelsson K & Jokela V. (2004). The occurrence of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity and coexisting symptoms in a population study of 471 6-8-year old children based on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3: 23-30.

Bohlin G & Janols LO. (2004). Behavioural problems and psychiatric symptoms in 5-13 year-old Swedish children - a comparison of parent ratings on the FTF (Five to Fifteen) with the ratings on CBCL (Child behaviour Checklist). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 13. Supplement 3, 14-22.

Other publications:

Below are listed all studies (we know of) using the 5-15 parent questionnaire. A few of the publications have 5-15 as a main focus. They will be marked with *. Others have used 5-15 as an instrument in the work.

* Bruce B, Thernlund, G & Nettelbladt, U. (2006). ADHD and language impairment. A study of the parent questionnaire FTF (Five to Fifteen). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol 15: 52-60.

Elovainio, M., Raaska, H., Sinkkonen, J., Mäkipää, S., Lapinleimu, H. (2015). Associations between attachment-related symptoms and later psychological problems among international adoptees: results from the FinAdo study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(1), 53-61.

Engman ML, Lindstrom K, Sallamba M, Hertz C, Sundberg B, Hansson ME, et al. One-year follow-up of tick-borne central nervous system infections in childhood. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012 Jun;31(6):570-574.

Engstrom P, Van't Hooft I, Tedroff K. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and problems among children with idiopathic toe-walking. J Pediatr Orthop 2012 Dec;32(8):848-852.

Farooqi A, Hägglöf B, Sedin G, Gothefors L & Serenius F. Executive Functions, Language and Learning Skills in Children Born at 23-25 weeks’ gestation in the 1900s: A Swedish Prospective Follow-Up Study. Submitted 2008. Described here:

Farooqi, A, Hàgglòf, B, & Serenius, F. (2013). Behaviours related to executive functions and learning skills at 11 years of age after extremely preterm birth: A Swedish national prospective follow-up study. Acta Paediatrica, 102 (6), 625–634.

Forsman, L. & Eliasson A.C. (2015). Strengths and challenges faced by school-aged children with unilateral CP described by the Five To Fifteen parental questionnaire. Dev Neurorehabil, 19, 1-9.

Gillberg, C. (1999). Nordisk enhet om DAMP/ADHD. Läkartidningen, 99., 3330-3331.

Hölcke M, Marcus C, Gillberg C,& Fernell E. (2008) Paediatric obesity: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Acta Pædiatrica, 97: 819-821.

Haavisto, A., Korkman, M., Jalanko, H., Holmberg, C., & Qvist, E. (2010). Neurocognitive function of pediatric heart transplant recipients. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 29 (7), 764-770

Haavisto, A., Korkman, M., Törmänen, J., Holmberg, C., Jalanko, H., Qvist, E. (2011). Visuospatial impairment in children and adolescents after liver transplantation. Pediatric Transplantation, 15(2):184-92.

Huhtala, M., Korja, R., c, Lehtonen, L. Haataja, L., Lapinleimu, H., Rautava, P. on behalf of the PIPARI Study Group. (2014). Associations between parental psychological well-being and socio-emotional development in 5-year-old preterm children. Early Human Development 90, 119–124.

Hysing, M. & Bøe, T. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of Five to Fifteen (5-15). PsykTestBarn, 1:3.

Illum, N.O. & Gradel, K. O. (2014). The Nordic Five to Fifteen questionnaire could provide the basis for a common neurological disability variable. Acta Paediatrica, 103 (8), 879–885.

Kadesjö, B. & Gillberg, C. (2001) The comorbidity of ADHD in the general population of Swedish school age children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, (487–492).

Kopp S, Beckung E & Gillberg C (2010) Developmental coordination disorder and other motor control problems in girls with autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities (in press).

Koubaa, S., Hällström, T., Hagenas, L., Hirschberg, A. L. (2013). Retarded head growth and neurocognitive development in infants of mothers with a history of eating disorders: longitudinal cohort study. Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig, 2013.

Lambek, R. & Trillingsgaard, A, Kadesjö, B., Damm, D., & Thomsen, P. H. (2010). Gender Differences on the Five to Fifteen Questionnaire in a Non-referred Sample with Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and a Clinic-referred Sample with Hyperkinetic Disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51 (6), 540-547.

* Lind, A., Lapinleimu, H., Korkman, M., Lehtonen, L., Parkkola, R., & Haataja, L. (2010). Five-year follow-up of prematurely born children with postnatally developing caudothalamic cysts. Acta Paediatrica, 99(2), 304-307.

* Lind, Haataja, L., Rautava, L., Väliaho, A., Lehtonen, L., Lapinleimu, H., Parkkola, R,, Korkman, M. & The PIPARI Study Group (2009). Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19 (5), 407-417

Lindblad, I. (2013). Mild intellectual disability: Diagnostic and outcome aspects Doktorsavhandling.

Lindblad, I., Gillberg, C., og Fernell, E. (2011). ADHD and other associated developmental problems in children with mild mental retardation. The use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" questionnaire in a population-based sample. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32 (6), pp.2805-2809.

Lundervold, A. J., Posserud, M. B., Ullebø, A. K., Sørensen, L., & Gillberg, C. (2011). Teacher reports of hypoactivity symptoms reflect slow cognitive processing speed in primary school children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20 (3), 121-126. doi:10.1007/s00787-010-0153-1.

Niklasson L, Rasmussen P, Oskarsdottir S & Gillberg C. (2009) Autism, ADHD, mental retardation and behavior problems in 100 individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30: 763-773.

Niklasson, L. (2007). 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. Neuropsychological and Neuropsychiatric Correlates. A Clinical Study of 100 Cases. Doktorsavhandling, 2007.

Nylander, C., Toivonen, H., Nasic, S., Söderström, U., Tindberg, Y., Fernell, E. (2013). Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and high HbA1c -- a neurodevelopmental perspective. Acta Paediatr, 102(4):410-5.

Pediatrics (2015). Research Results from Odense University Hospital Update Knowledge of Pediatrics (The Nordic Five to Fifteen questionnaire could provide the basis for a common neurological disability variable). Health & Medicine Week, May 29, 2015, p.259

Raaska, H., Elovainio, M., Sinkkonen, J., Stolt, S., Jalonen, I., Matomaki, J., Makipaa, S., Lapinleimu, H. (2013). Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder, FinAdo Study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(3), p.152-160.

Rautava, L., Andersson, S., Gissler, M., Hallman, M., Häkkinen, U., Korvenranta, E., Korvenranta, H., Leipälä, J., Tammela, O., & Lehtonen, L. (2010). Development and behaviour of 5-year-old very low birthweight infants. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(8), (669-677).

Rydén E & Bejerot, S. (2008) Autism spectrum disorders in an adult psychiatric population. A naturalistic cross-sectional controlled study. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5 (1): 13-21.

Staberg, M., Norén, J. G; Johnson, M., Kopp, S., Robertson, A. (2014). Parental attitudes and experiences of dental care in children and adolescents with ADHD - a questionnaire study. Swedish Dental Journal, 38 (2) s. 93-100.

Stylsvig M. (2008) Forekomsten af erhvervet hjerneskade hos børn og unge samt en prospektiv undersøgelse af adfærdsmæssige følgevirkninger og neuropsykologisk status efter kranietraumerne. Ph.d.-afhandling. Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet. Aarhus Universitet. PHD-1.pdf

Svanborg P, Thernlund G, Gustafsson PA, Hägglöf B, Schacht A, Kadesjö B. (2009) Atomoxetine improves patient and family coping in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Swedish children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,18(12):725-35.

Trillingsgaard, A. (2005) Barnets udvikling og adfærd - Præsentation af et nyt instrument til at vurdere vanskeligheder og styrker på en række udviklings- og adfærdsområder hos børn i alderen 5-15 år. Dansk Psykolog Nyt nr. 23 2005 s 18-22.

Information about 5-15 in Nordic language

Article in Norwegian by Geir Øgrim, published in "Innsikt" 2009: